Friday, February 28, 2020

Coronavirus in Greece: KKE urges government to take “all needed prevention measures”

Three confirmed cases of Covid-19 have been announced so far by the Greek Ministry of Health. The condition of all three cases infected by the new Coronavirus has been described as good and is being monitored by specialists. 

In a statement, the Health and Welfare Section of the Central Committee of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) demands from the government to take all the needed measures for the prevention and treatment of the Covid-19 effects. 

Wednesday, February 26, 2020

Greek government's authoritarianism exceeded all limits: Police brutality hits Aegean islands

In the last two days, the Greek government has unleashed a brutal attack against protesters in the islands of the Aegean, particularly those that have been at the epicenter of the refugee-migrants issue during the last years. 

Demonstrators in Lesvos, Chios and Samos suffered excessive repression and violence by riot police forces as they demanded the end of the concentration camps. The local unions in Lesvos, Chios and Samos, have been in the front line demanding real measures of protection and assistance to the refugees, as well as support to the local communities, who witness their land turn into huge EU’s detention centers.

Dmitry Yazov, last Soviet Marshal who opposed the USSR dissolution, died at 95

Dmitry Yazov, the last appointed Marshal of the Soviet Union, died on Tuesday in Moscow after a long illness. He was 95 years old.

His career extends from the Siege of Leningrad to the formation of the State Committee on the State of Emergency (SCSE, GKChP) which tried to prevent the domination of the counterrevolutionary forces in 1991.

Born in 1924 in the Omsk oblast, Yazov enlisted in the Red Army in 1941 at age 17. During World War II he would be honored for his service on the Volkhov and Leningrad fronts, thus laying the groundwork for his ascension through the ranks of the Soviet military. He participated in the battles of the Siege of Leningrad, in the offensive operations of Soviet troops in the Baltic states, in the blockade of the Courland Pocket. 

Monday, February 24, 2020

Racist crime in Germany: Turkish communists blast bourgeois hypocrisy towards fascism

Some 10,000 people marched in the town of Hanau, Germany, on Sunday as a show of support for the nine victims of a fascist terror attack. The mourners came together to demonstrate solidarity after a man shot nine people dead in the town on Wednesday before apparently killing his mother and himself. 

The 43-year-old assailant, named Tobias R., left rambling texts and videos in which he advocated racist views, called for genocide and claimed to have been under surveillance since birth. 

KKE campaign to honor the 75th anniversary of the Anti-Fascist Victory of the People

On the occasion of the 75 years since the Anti-Fascist People’s Victory, the Party Organisations Abroad of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) organize a series of events that include visits in 75 anti-fascist memorials across Europe. The campaign is titled “1945-2020, 75 years of the Anti-Fascist Victory, 75 Anti-Fascist Memorials, Tribute to the People”.

As 902 portal reports “these events will give us the opportunity to honor the male and female fighters who sacrificed their lives throughout Europe, who were tortured, imprisoned and went into exile. To honor the decisive contribution of the USSR in the Anti-Fascist Victory as well as the undisputed superiority of socialism against capitalism”. 

Sunday, February 23, 2020

Greek government's authoritarian attempt to criminalize demonstrations shall not pass

A new draft law, prepared by the conservative New Democracy (ND) government in Greece, threatens to restrict even further workers’ freedoms and rights. 

More specifically, according to information leaked through the pro-governmental newspaper “Kathimerini”, the draft law will include restrictions, prosecutions and even the prohibition of mobilizations, thus creating an environment of state and police repression against the organized workers’ movement. 

Friday, February 21, 2020

Trump not welcome in India: Anti-imperialist, left forces ready to protest during his visit

Indian PM Modi and U.S. President Trump (Archive Photo).
Democratic, peace-loving and anti-imperialist forces in India are ready to protest against U.S. President Donald Trump’s visit in the country on February 24-25. 

During a press conference last week, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of India (Marxist), Sitaram Yechury, said that his party will participate in demonstrations during Trump’s visit to the country. 

“May be in Delhi or in Gujarat, the party activists will certainly protest”, Yechury pointed out. 

Thursday, February 20, 2020

Venezuela: STOP the persecution of communist trade unionists!

Oil industry trade unionists Yánez and Herrera.
On February 17th, the Communist Party of Venezuela (PCV) and the National Front of Working Class Struggle (FNLCT) issued a statement denouncing the acts of aggression, repression and police harassment against communist trade unionists in the oil industry. 

More specifically, trade unionists Dolores Herrera and Gustavo Yánez, members of the Oil workers union “Jesús Faría” (CCT-CV), were attacked in their own house by an armed group, being violently evicted and deprived of their personal belongings. 

Which characteristics will socialism have in the 21st century?

Makis Papadopoulos (Archive Photo).
The following text is the transcript of a speech delivered by Makis Papadopoulos, member of the Political Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), at the "Socialist Future and Planning Symposium" organized by Turkey's Academy of Science and Enlightenment (BAA) between December 6-8 in Ankara. 

Which characteristics will socialism have during the 21st century
By Makis Papadopoulos.

On behalf of the Central Committee of KKE, I would like to thank you for the honourable invitation and to congratulate you for the theme you chose for your conference, a theme which proves that your Party is constantly striving to play its role as a revolutionary vanguard.

Tuesday, February 18, 2020

Massive strike in Greece: Thousands took the streets against anti-Social Security reforms

Photo: 902.gr.
With powerful strike demonstrations in more than 60 cities across Greece the All-Workers Militant Front (PAME) and the class movement of the country gave a militant response to the government’s anti-people policy on Social Security and pensions. 

From midnight workers gathered in factories, labour places and production units to prevent possible strikebreaking efforts, while in Athens public transportation was stopped. 

Poland's right-wing government continues the repression against the Communist Party

The persecution against the Communist Party of Poland continues. The trial against the members of the editorial board of the party's newspaper "Brzask" is scheduled to restart. The first court session will be held on the 3rd of March. 

The trial continues for over 4 years despite the acquittal verdict of the court issued last year. The appeal of the prosecutor was a basis for restarting the trial. For the last 4 years, the prosecutors' office is directly subordinated to the government. This trial is a part of a campaign made by the state authorities to illegalize the Communist Party of Poland. 

Sunday, February 16, 2020

STOP Defender 2020! Protesters marched in Munich against US-NATO-EU imperialists

Demonstrators in the streets of Munich. Photo: 902.gr.
A large anti-imperialist rally took place in the streets of Munich on Saturday where thousands of protesters gave a powerful response to the U.S-NATO-EU imperialist “hawks” participating at the 56th Munich Security Conference.

Under the slogan “Stop the DEFENDER 2020 exercise! Close down NATO bases in Ramstein, Incirlik, Souda and everywhere”, workers and immigrants, members and supporters of the Communist Parties of Greece (KKE) and Turkey (TKP), marched alongside their comrades from the German Communist Party (DKP). 

Saturday, February 15, 2020

German Communist Party (DKP) to hold its 23rd Congress on February 28 to March 1

The city of Frankfurt will host the 23rd Congress of the German Communist Party (DKP), between February 28 and March 1, 2020. 

Under the title “Our battlefields as part of the anti-monopoly strategy”, the DKP leadership has published a draft proposal which consists the framework of the discussion for the 23rd Congress. During the previous months, a series of articles, opinions and views regarding the proposal were published in the weekly newspaper “Unsere Zeit”

Friday, February 14, 2020

KKE leader Dimitris Koutsoumbas blasts Greek government's anti-worker policy

“Capitalist development neither is nor can ever be development for all” said the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) Dimitris Koutsoumbas during his speech in the Parliament on labour issues. 

Koutsoumbas fired against New Democracy government reforms saying that what Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis describes as “Greece of development and prosperity” has absolutely nothing to do with what the workers are experiencing.

Thursday, February 13, 2020

Greece: Workers strike against the privatization plans of LARCO Metal Industry

On Tuesday, February 11 started a new strike in Greece’s LARCO Metal Industry. The workers of LARCO Industry went on strike against the announcements of the government to completely privatize LARCO, one of the biggest producers of nickel globally.

The Greek government announced its decision to impose complete privatization of the industry or shut it down. In both cases the victims will be the workers and their families.

Connolly Youth Movement on Irish Elections: The fight for a socialist Ireland continues

Sinn Fein leader Mary Lou McDonald celebrates
with her supporters in Dublin on February 9, 2020.
The following article, published on the website of the Connolly Youth Movement (CYM) on February 10, provides a concise first assessment of the Irish elections results from a marxist-leninist viewpoint: 

The Meaning of 'Power' in a Post-GE2020 Ireland

As we make our way back to work or college this week, no new dawn falls on Ireland. It still holds dominion status to the interests of finance capitalism, vulture funds and an unregulated banking system backed up by an unregulated and unaccountable parliament.  

Wednesday, February 12, 2020

European Parliament: Communist MEP Lefteris Nikolaou-Alavanos slams U.S Mideast plan

Speaking at the Plenary of the European Parliament in Strasbourg, the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) MEP Lefteris Nikolaou-Alavanos denounced the recent U.S plan for the Middle East and the Israeli-Palestinian issue.

For the same issue, the E.U High Commissioner on Foreign Affairs and Security Policy Josep Borrell characterized the plan as “positive” and a “starting point for negotiations”. 

EU migration policy turns Greek islands into prisons for refugees — Statement by KKE

The Press Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) sharply criticized New Democracy (ND) government’s legislative act which introduces requisition of land and facilities for migration purposes. 

Stelios Petsas, the governmental spokesperson, announced on Monday that the current administration will issue a Legislative Act by which the state will be able to proceed with the requisition of public and private properties where new migrant camps (hotspots) will be constructed.

Tuesday, February 11, 2020

Cuban revolutionary, Major General Efigenio Ameijeiras Delgado, died at 88

Cuban revolutionary, General Efigenio Ameijeiras Delgado, has died at the age of 88, Granma newspaper reported on Monday 10 February.

Efigenio was born on September 21, 1931, in Chaparra, Oriente Region, Cuba.

From an early age he identified with the youth of the July 26 Movement, actively participating in actions against the dictatorial regime of Fulgencio Batista. Following his persecution by the Batista regime he traveled to Mexico, where he joined the preparations of Fidel Castro's revolutionary group. 

Monday, February 10, 2020

PAME calls for strike on February 18th against ND government's Social Security reforms

A nationwide General Strike in both state and private sector has been announced by the All-Workers Militant Front (PAME) for February 18th, as a response to the anti-people reforms of the Greek government on Social Security and Pensions. 

In a statement addressed to workers, pensioners, farmers, self-employed people and students, PAME calls for mass participation in February 18th’s strike. 

“Social Security has to do with our lives. The unacceptable anti-Social Security draft law must be withdrawn!” is the headline of the call which reads:

International Anti-Imperialist Conference to be held on March 28-29 in Cyprus

The World Peace Council (WPC), the Cyprus Peace Council and the Coalition Against U.S. Military Bases organize an International Anti-Imperialist Conference which will be held on March 28-29, 2020 in Larnaca, Cyprus

The call for the Conference is the following:

Since the dismantling of the USSR and the Socialist Camp in Eastern Europe, and the emergence of the so-called “Unipolar World,” U.S. imperialism and its EU and NATO allies have embarked on a global project of “Full-Spectrum Dominance” with the objective of complete domination of the whole globe.

Saturday, February 8, 2020

Ireland Elections: A Communist Viewpoint

Today, Saturday 8 February 2020, it's election day in Ireland. Voters are going to the polls after a tumultuous general election campaign. On this occasion we republish an article from the latest issue of Socialist Voice, the official newspaper of the Communist Party of Ireland

There are no shortcuts
by Eugene McCartan

Elections come and go; but there are no shortcuts for what our class needs to secure.

Thursday, February 6, 2020

Deal of the Century? Communist and Workers' parties condemn Trump's plan on Palestine

Communist and Workers' Parties from across the world condemn the recently announced U.S. government's "peace plan" for the Middle East which has been described as the "Deal of the Century". 

The plan was presented by U.S. President Donald Trump during a joint press conference with Israeli Prime Minister Benjamin Netanyahu at the White House on January 28th. 

KKE denounces the persecution against Chilean communist deputy Hugo Gutiérrez

Communist Party of Chile deputy Hugo Gutiérrez.
In a protest letter addressed to the Chilean Embassy in Athens, the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) denounces the persecution of Hugo Gutiérrez, deputy of the Communist Party of Chile (PCC). 

The KKE letter, signed by Politburo member and MP Giorgos Marinos, expresses the Party’s condemnation of the anti-people policy of Sebastián Piñera and denounces the state repression against the recent huge mobilizations of the people of Chile

Wednesday, February 5, 2020

Greek-Turkish relations and the geopolitical competitions — Remarks by Eliseos Vagenas

The Sectoral Organization of Universities and Research of the Party Organization of Attica of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) and the Regional Students Organization of Athens of the Communist Youth (KNE), in the afternoon of Tuesday the 28th of January, held an event on “The dangerous developments in the Greek-Turkish relations, in the throes of the geopolitical antagonisms and the anti-popular interests” at Panteion University.

Left parties in India call for nationwide protests against Modi government's policies

Five Left parties in India - CPI(M), CPI, CPI(ML), AIFB and RSP - issued on February 4th a statement titled "Nationwide Protests Against Anti-People Budget February 12 to 18". The statement reads:

The Left parties will conduct a nationwide protest against the wide range of anti-people policies contained in this year's budget which will further squeeze the livelihood conditions of the vast majority of our people. The Modi government has destroyed the Indian economy, imposing unprecedented burdens on the people. At the same time, it has been giving concession after concession to the rich and the corporates, which has widened economic inequalities amongst our people to levels never seen ever before in independent India.

Tuesday, February 4, 2020

Interview of the General Secretary of the KKE Dimitris Koutsoumbas in "EfSyn" newspaper

Dimitris Koutsoumbas, the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), gave a comprehensive interview in the weekend edition (1-2 February) of the "Efimerida ton Syntakton" (EfSyn) newspaper. 

The KKE leader refered to various interesting issues, including Greece's domestic political matters, the country's relations with neighboring Turkey, the sinful role of social democracy and the stance of the KKE towards cooperation governments. 

Below, you can read a translated version of the interview:

Monday, February 3, 2020

Vietnam's Communist Party marks its 90th founding anniversary

Today, February 3, 2020, the entire Party, people and army of Vietnam proudly celebrate the 90th founding anniversary of the Communist Party of Vietnam - the Party which was founded, led and trained by the great President Ho Chi Minh

Over the past 90 years, the Party has led the nation’s revolution to overcome all hardships and challenges and gain many victories, turning Vietnam from an unknown country on the world map into a nation with prestigious position in the international arena.

Sunday, February 2, 2020

Transnistria: Solidarity with communist leader Oleg Khorzhan

In a statement issued on January 31st the Communist Party of Ukraine appeals to Communist and Workers' Parties to express their support with Oleg Khorzan, Communist Party leader in the Pridnestrovian Moldavian Republic, who has been illegally detained and imprisoned by the authorities. 

The full statement of the Communist Party of Ukraine, in english and russian, is the following:

STOP THE ARBITRARINESS OF THE TRANSNISTRIAN REGIME!
FREEDOM TO COMMUNIST OLEG KHORZHAN - PRISONER OF CONSCIENCE!

Friday, January 31, 2020

KKE condemns the provocative racist rant of neo-Nazi MEP Lagos

The EU Parliament Group of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) condemns the racist rant of the Nazi MEP – former Golden Dawn MP – Yannis Lagos who ripped a copy of the Turkish flag during his speech in the EU Parliament

“This provocation is aimed against both the Greek and Turkish people and is linked to dirty plans that the nationalists always serve” writes a statement published on KKE’s 902 portal

Israeli Left and Peace groups denounce Trump-Netanyahu "deal of the century"

Israeli left alliance Hadash (Democratic Front for Peace and Equality), alongside peace movements, denounce the recently announced by U.S President Donald Trump and Benjamin Netanyahu "peace plan" for Palestine. Read below a report including statements by Hadash leader Ayman Odeh and peace activists regarding the so-called "Deal of the Century":
Hadash together with Israeli peace movements will be holding a demonstration against US President Donald Trump’s “Deal of the Century” in Dizengoff Square in central Tel Aviv on Saturday evening, February 1, at 7 pm.

Thousands of protesters in Greece raised their voice against the military deal with the U.S.

Thousands of people, workers, men and women of every age, participated on Thursday afternoon in demonstrations across Greece, against the Greece-U.S. “defense cooperation agreement” which upgrades and extends the american military bases in the country. The rallies were organized by the Greek Committee for International Detente and Peace (EEDYE), the Federation of Greek Women (OGE), Workers' Unions and Associations, Students' Unions and other groups of the people's movement.   

Thursday, January 30, 2020

KKE in EU Parliament: On the 75 years since the liberation of Auschwitz by the Red Army

On the occasion of the event in the European Parliament regarding the Holocaust and the liberation of the Auschwitz concentration camp, the Europarliament Group of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) issued a statement that was published on 902 portal

The statement reads:

"The memory of the Holocaust, one of the most atrocious crimes of Nazism, is an eternal tribute to its victims, to all those who alongside Jews suffered in Nazi crematoriums: the thousands of communists, anti-fascists who fought nazism in occupied Europe and in Germany herself, such as the murdered by the Nazis heroic Secretary of the German Communist Party, Ernst Thälmann. The Nazi hell of Auschwitz is a reminder of the criminal nature of fascism, of the barbarity of the capitalist system that creates it, just as the german, european and american business groups funded Hitler. 

Wednesday, January 29, 2020

KKE slams Trump's plan for the Middle East: "It perpetuates and fortifies Israeli occupation"

In a statement published on 902 portal, the Press Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) condemns the so-called "peace plan" of the U.S. government for the Israeli-Palestinian issue. 

U.S. President Trump presented his plan, standing alongside Israeli PM Benjamin Netanyahu, during a press conference at the White House. 

More specifically, the KKE denounces that “the U.S plan for the Palestinian Issue, which is falsely presented as “the deal of the century”, not only does not guarantee an independent palestinian state but perpetuates and fortifies israeli occupation.”

Tuesday, January 28, 2020

Party of Labour of Austria (PdA): Statement for the 75th anniversary of Auschwitz liberation

Declaration of the Central Committee of the Party of Labour of Austria (PdA) for the 75 years since the liberation of Auschwitz concentration camp by the Red Army:

On 27 January 1945, Soviet Red Army soldiers from several infantry divisions of the 1st Ukrainian Front reached the concentration camps and the extermination camp of Auschwitz and liberated the remaining inmates. 

The German fascists had left behind only minimal military forces, but in battles in and around Oświęcim at least 230 Red Army soldiers died that day.

Monday, January 27, 2020

Iraqi Communist Party demands the ending of bloodshed, calls for early elections

As mass demonstrations and brutal repression by the authorites continue in Iraq, the Communist Party intervenes with a statement demanding an end to the bloodshed and calls the government to proceed  to early elections. 

More specifically, on 25th January, the Political Bureau of the Iraqi Communist Party issued the following statement:

"The past few days have again witnessed the escalation of bloody repression by the security forces against the demonstrators in Baghdad and other provinces, which led to the death of more demonstrators and dozens injured.

Sunday, January 26, 2020

Theo Angelopoulos: The Great Poet of Cinema

The 24th of January marked the 8th anniversary since the tragic death of the acclaimed Greek film director Theo Angelopoulos. He was killed by a motorcycle while he was attempting to cross a busy road in Piraeus. 

Being one of the last and most characteristic representatives of modernism in Cinema, Angelopoulos was, without any doubt, the most internationally respected Greek filmmaker and one of the greatest directors of his generation. He received numerous awards with the most notable being the prestigious Palme d’Or award at the 1998 Cannes Film Festival for his remarkable film “Eternity and a Day”. 

Saturday, January 25, 2020

KKE and PAME express solidarity and support to the earthquake-affected people of Turkey

The Communist Party of Greece (KKE) and the All-Workers Militant Front (PAME) have expressed their solidarity and support towards the working class and the people of Turkey who had been affected by the deadly 6.7-magnitude earthquake. 

In a message to the Communist Party of Turkey (TKP), the International Relations Section of the CC of the KKE expresses its support to the people of Turkey for the numerous victims and the huge damages caused, one more time, by the recent disastrous earthquake in Eastern Turkey.

KKE condemns Greek Premier Mitsotakis over his support to Venezuelan coup leader Guaidó

In a statement published in 902 portal, the Press Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) condemns Prime Minister Kyriakos Mitsotakis' expressed support to U.S-backed Venezuelan coup plotter Juan Guaido. Mitsotakis met with Guaido on the sidelines of the World Economic Forum in Davos.

The KKE statement reads:

Friday, January 24, 2020

Neo-Ottomanism: the political economy of contemporary Turkey

The following article, published in "Morning Star" newspaper on January 20th, under the title "Neo-Ottomanism: the political economy of contemporary Turkey", was written by the General Secretary of the Communist Party of Turkey (TKP) Kemal Okuyan:

After failure in Syria, the Turkish President Recep Tayyip Erdogan is busy developing a second version of his neo-Ottoman project, which he first brought onto the political agenda in the second half of the early 2000s.

Thursday, January 23, 2020

European Communist Initiative: Solidarity with the workers' strikes in France

The Secretariat of the European Communist Initiative expresses its internationalist solidarity with the workers' strikes in France and calls on the workers to express their support for the new strikes organized on 22 and 24 January in defense of labor, social insurance and pension rights, that are being trampled by the policy of the Macron government.

Workers in France, with strikes and diverse mobilizations, clash with the antilabor measures of the Macron government, of business groups and the EU, that raise pensionable ages, convert pensions into allowances and hand social security contributions and insurance fund reserves to gambling and to the business groups.

Wednesday, January 22, 2020

KKE MPs blast Greek government: “You give everything to the U.S-NATO killers”

Communist MPs Giorgios Marinos and Thanasis Pafilis.
On Tuesday, the Greek-U.S. Defense Agreement, which actually expands the existing network of U.S. military bases in the country, was discussed at the Greek Parliament’s Committee. In the coming days the issue will be brought in the Parliament’s plenary in the form of a draft law that the parties will be called to vote for or against.

“The agreement is very dangerous for the country and the people and we demand its withdrawal” said Giorgos Marinos, MP and Politburo member of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE), during the discussion at a Parliamentary Committee. 

Tuesday, January 21, 2020

Russian communists mark the 96th anniversary of Vladimir Lenin's death

Today marks the 96th anniversary since the death of the greatest revolutionary of the 20th Century, the continuer of Marx and Engel's theoretical work and architect of the Soviet Union, Vladimir Ilyich Lenin

For this reason, hundreds of workers, men and women, members and supporters of the Communist Party of the Russian Federation (CPRF), as well as other communist groups and youth organizations, gathered at Moscow's Red Square, in order to lay flowers the Mausoleum of Lenin. 

The event was attended by a delegation of the CC of the CPRF headed by Chairman Gennady Zyuganov

Monday, January 20, 2020

Berlin Conference's "wish list" cannot reverse the real causes of Libya conflict — KKE

The Press Bureau of the CC of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) issued today a statement, published on 902 portal, about the conclusion of the Berlin Conference on Libya

The statement reads: 

"The Berlin Conference finally has neither brought nor could bring a solution that would ensure peace, stability in Libya and the interests of the Libyan people. After all, the leaders of the Conference themsleves are responsible for the 2011 NATO war and the dissolution of Libya, for the ongoing military conflicts that have brought this country’s people to misery. 

Communist MEP Lefteris Nikolaou blasts the EU for attempting to re-write History

"The EU will not succeed to re-write people's history, no matter how much anti-communist ink will spill" was the message delivered by the MEP of the Communist Party of Greece (KKE) Lefteris Nikolaou-Alavanos in his intervention during EU Parliament's plenary in Strasbourg. 

The debate's subject was "Distortion of European history and remembrance of the Second World War". In his intervention, the KKE MEP pointed out the following (translation from the Greek text): 

Saturday, January 18, 2020

Communist Party of Britain included alongside neo-Nazis in UK counter-terror list!

In an outrageous act that promotes the despicable and historically groundless equation of communism with nazism/fascism, the U.K. Home Office has lumbed together the Communist Party of Britain (CPB) with neo-Nazi and white supremacist groups in literature and posters supposedly designed to educate officers about extremism. 

More specifically, Morning Star Online reports: